Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9

Pindas were offered to Kantavati and Chandravati in the course of the Sradha ceremony of Rana Bahadur Shah on the seventy day of the bright helf of every month according to the Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 lunar. Rana Bahadur Shah seems to have married Chandravati first after his return from Kashi. It was not known when she died. In Falgun 1862 Vikrama, Rana Bahadur Shah was appointed regent through the joint signature Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 of Bhimsen Thapa and Sher Bahadur Shahi, and under the royal seal. The manner in which Bhimsen Thapa and Sher Bahadur Shahi мейд Rana Bahadur Shah regent, thereby leassening their Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 own powers two years after their return from Kashi is mysterious. The marriage of Rana Bahadur Shah with a girl named Tripura is also mysterious. After twenty days of his regency, Rana Bahadur Shah Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 arrested Kaji Tribhuwan Khawas at night and detained him. The property of Tribhuwan Khawas was confiscated on the charge of misappropriating Rs 18,000 from the old treasury. Rana Bahadur Shah мейд Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 house of Tribhuwan Khawas his own residende. On the same charge, Tribhuwan Khawas was banished across the Bishnumati river. But Tribhuwan Khawas sent a petition to Rana Bahadur Shah demanding a hearing in Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 the presence of the Bharadari. Tribhuwan Khawas was brought back and kept in detention. It was planned to involve sher Bahadur Shahi by putting Tribhuwan Khawas into a trap. It Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 is not sure how Tribhuwan Khawas and Sher Bahadur Shahi were connected with each other. In my opinion Sher Bahadur Shahi was the sister's son of Tribhuwan Khawas.

When the petition of Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Tribhuwan Khawas was presented to him, Rana Bahadur Shah convened a full court at the residende of Tribhuwan. The house had already been granted to Chitravati, mother of Kirtiman Simha. Rana Bahadur Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Shah had taken his supper in the same house on the day when the meeting was held. The meeting was called at midnight. Such meetings were mostly called for sentencing people to death Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9. Vansha Raj Pande was sentenced to death at the same meeting. Sher Bahadur Shahi was called to attend the meeting held at night on Baisakh 14, 1863. Orders were issued to bring him Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 by force if he refused to come. Sher Bahadur Shah attended the meeting. Rana Bahadur blamed Sher Bahadur Shahi and Narsing Gurung with having colluded with Tribhuwan Khawas in misappropriating funds.



He Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 asked how the money had been spent. Rana Bahadur Shah charged them that they had misused the money in driving him out to Kashi, and permitted the British to open Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 an office in Kirtipur to prevent his return to Nepal. Tribhuwan Khawas could not present accounts of the money. None of the Bhardars had supported the proposal to open the British office Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 in Kirtipur. That is why royal assent had not been granted to the treaty even for a year. Tribhuwan Khawas and Sher Bahadur Shahi migh have agreed to do so, since they were supporters Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 of Subarnaprabha. Sher Bahadur, Narsing Gurung, and Tribhuwan Khawas alone were arrested, ingnoring the role of others. Sher Bahadur Shahi was frightened, and asked Rana Bahadur whether he too would be charged Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 on this account. Rana Bahadur replied in the affirmative. The meeting was being held on a verandah in the southern wing, and jugs of water and other vessels were kept Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 there. Sher Bahadur Shahi again took a jug of water, came in from of Rana Bahadur and struck him with a sword on the neck. But Rana Bahadur Shah was hit in Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 the stomach, and feel donw. Sher Bahadur Shahi then run away after extinguishing the lights. When Rana Bahadur asked Balanar Simha and Chautara Bam Shah for help, they were able to catch Sher Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Bahadur. Sher Bahadur Shahi was killed at the hands of Balanar Simha. Bam Shah sustained injuries. At that time, Bhimsen Thapa was taking his supper. He came to the Varandah with Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 a light, and fund Rana Bahadur Shah lying on the ground. It was 10:00 P. M. It was decited to summon the troops. Bhimsen Thapa then issued a strict order to everybody not Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 to quit the place. Two slaves were found in the Varandah, who had come to help Sher Bahadur Shahi. They were killed on the spot, and their deadbodies, including that of Sher Bahadur were Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 through from Varandah. Rana Bahadur Shah was taken down stairs, but he died immediately. His dead body was sent to Aryaghat for cremation. Possibly, Bam Shah lit the Pyre.

Meanwhile Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9, Bhimsen Thapa ordered the arrest of Tribhuwan Khawas and Narsing Gurung and their detention at the barracks of the royal palace. Balanar Simha Kunwar, Kaji Ranjit Pande, Kaji Bahadur Bhandari, Ranganath Guru, and Bhimsen Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Thapa reached royal palace under the protection of troops. After reacing there, Bhimsen Thapa sent men to detain Bidur Shahi at his own residence, while King Prithvi Sen of Palpa and Chautara Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Rana Bahadur Sen were detained at the Patan Palace, where they were staying. He sent horsemen to Rajarajeshwari with instructions to become a Sati on the banks of the Shali river Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 in Sankhu.



Next morning, Bidur Shahi, Tribhuwan Khawas, Narsing Gurung, the King of Palpa, and Chautara Rana Bahadur Sen were beheaded at Bhandarkhal. The same day, eighteen guards of the King of Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Palpa were also beheaded. On the following day, thirteen persons including Jagat Khawas, were beheaded at the Bishnumati. On the ninth day of the death of Rana Bahadur shah, Queen Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Rajarajeshwari and fourteen concubines became Satis. In the fifteenth day, his concubine of Kashi followed suit. Sixteen women thus became Satis, and 77 were beheaded, after the assassination of Rana Bahadur Shah. In this Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 wasy 93 persons lost their lives.

Bilas Kumari, daughter of King Prithvi Narayan Shah and Queen of Salyan, come to Kathmandu on hearing the report of the assassination of Rana Bahadur Shah. She started Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 taking that Bhimsen Thapa had had a хэнд in the massacre; hence Bhimsen Thapa sent her back to Phalawang in Salyan, after providing an allowances of Rs 1,400 per year. The Kingdom of Salyan Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 was marged into Nepal. Morever, the Birta lands granted by King Prithvi Narayan Shah to her were confiscated.

Kumaun was also affected by the massacre. Kaji Rituvarma Thapa was chief administration in Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Amora. Birabhadra Thapa, His rank was above that of Rituvarna Thapa. Birabhadra Thapa sent Rituvarna Thapa to Doti, and had him beheaded there. Bhimsen Thapa then became the all Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9-in-all in Nepal. He managed to get a royal order ordering all kajis and Chautaras to obey him.

Girban remained King, and Tripura was designated as Queen-Mother under the name Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 of Lalitasundari. A Suki coin was brought into circulation in her name. Bhimsen Thapa was called minister. The King, the Queen-Mother, and the minister became the leading components of the state Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9.


(S. B. Maharjan)

Regmi Research (Private) Ltd,

Kathmandu: August 1, 1975

Regmi Research Series

Year 7, No. 8,

Edited By

Mahesh C. Regmi.




1. Social Changes during the Early

Shah Period ... 141

2. A Lichhavi Inscription at

Lazimpat, Kathmandu … 150

3. Jitamitra Malla … 152

4. Selected Documents Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 of Marga 1842 … 156

5. Mining Regulations … 159


Regmi Research (Pvt) Ltd,

Lazimpat, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Compiled by Regmi Research (Private) Ltd for private study and research. Not meant for public sale of display.


Social Changes during Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 the Early Shah PeriodX


Baburam Acharya


We shall now commence a discussion of the changes that occurred in the Nepali society during the period from King Prithvi Narayan Shah to King Rana Bahadur.

Language Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 is the most important factor affecting the social structure. Five or six centures before Prithvi Narayan Shah, the Khas people had settled in the western regions of modern Nepal, as well as in Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Kumaun and Garhwal farther to the west. These people had established petty principalities in these regions. Their march toward the east was checked by the Malla rulers of Nepal when they Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 reached Pyuthan. After Jayasthiti Malla, however, the Khas were able to crose the Sakhi-Lekh mountains and enter the Magar region. Their dialect was then called Khas-Kura, to which the morder Nepali language Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 owes its origin. This dialect was capable of evolution like other Aryan languages. Consequently, it was understood easily by Magars, Thakalis and Gurungj. Previously, social intercourse among these communites had been hampered Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 by difficulties of communication. But now the Khas-Kura provided a common bond, and thereby laid the foundation of national untiy.

The Khas proceeded farther towards the east, and ultimately succeeded in establishing Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 the Chaubesi kingdoms in the Kali-Gandaki region. Gorkha was the twenty-fifteen kingdom in that region. The main task before these states at that time was to propagate the Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Khas-Kura among Magars, Thakalis, and


XBaburam Acharya, Nepalko Samshipta Vrittanta (A Concise Accont of Nepal). Kathmandu: Pramod Shamsher and Nir Bikram ''Pyasi,'' 2022 (1966). Chaptar 21: ''Tin Shahrajaharuko Samayama Samajma Bhayeko Parivartan ra Prabandhako Tulanatmak Lekhajokha Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9.'' (A comparative evalution of the social changes and arrangements during the time of three Shah Kings). PP. 127-51.



Gurungs, thereby strengthening unity among them. Magars had embraced the Sanatan religion of Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 the Khas. This had led to a close effinity between these two coccuminities. Thakalis and Gurung did not adopt the Sanatana religion because they had already embraced Buddhism, and мейд Lamas their spiritual leaders Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9. It was only during the reign of Prithvi Narayan Shah that Khas had been able to establish close relations with Thakalis and Gurungs.

The three Malla states situated to the east of Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Gorkha were inhabited mainly by Newars, who cultivated only paddy, not dry crops. Newars faced no shortage of rice; hence it was not neccesary for them to grow such crops Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 as maize and millet on unirrigated (Pakho) lands. Pakho lands were occupied by Murmis, who called themselves Tamangs. They cultivated Pahko lands, and raised such crops as millet and maize.

The Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Malla Kings did not permit anu community other than Newars to stay overnight withen their walled cities and villages.

After expanding their settlements of Gorkha and Tanahu, the Khas entered into the Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Malla states also. They originally settled on Pakho lands, because the Newars did no let them cultivate irrigated lands. Gradually, the Malla Kings allowed them to occupy irrigated lands, and requisitioned military services Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 from them. Murmis, Sherpas, and Newars then began understanding or learnig the dilect spoken by the Khas, and there was greater cooperation among these communities. The Khas-Kura became a medium for promoting Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 untiy among these communities. Even Kamis and Sunuwars living in Dolakha began to understand this dialect, and this strengthened untiy among themselves.

At the time, the Khambys of Kirat, whose number was Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 estimated at 100,000, spoke about ten or twelve different dialects. They dialect spoken by one section was understood by the other. Khambu families belonging to different sections, however, maintained marital relations experienced difficulty Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9, because they did not understand each other. Gradually, the Khas settled in the areas inhabitants by Khambus. The language difficulty experienced by husbands and wives came to an end.



when Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 all Khambus began to understand the Khas dialect. Khasas later crossed the Arun-Koshi river and settled down in Pallo-Kirat also. As a result, the Limbus of that region also learnt the Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Khas dialect. Like the Khambus, Thamis, and Hayus of Kirat, Limbus also contributed in strengthening national unity.

Among the Kirat communities of the eastern region, Sanuwars had embraced the Sanatana Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 religion only during the region of King Rajedra. Thamis, Hayus, and Dhimals adopted neither Buddhism nor the Sanatan religion. They still do no worship any idol, but pray to their own deities Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9. However, they have adopted the Khas dialect and rendered contribution in strengthening national untiy.

Khasa-Kura, or the Nepal dialect, used bu the Prithvi Narayan Shah in his letters, was pure and Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 hence cannot be compared with the modern Nepali language, which contains Hindi as well as Urdu words. The Gorkhalis started polishing the refining their language. The first letter written by Prithvi Narayan Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Shah is dated 1803 Vikrama. The lagnauge used in that letter was still pure. This indicates that the task of improving the Khas dialect had begun before Prithvi Narayan Shah, and continued till the reign of Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 King Rajendra. Efforts to refine the Khas dialect were concentrated in Gorkha. This language helped Prithvi Narayan Shah greatly to unity Nepal.

The Union of three communities, namely, Khasas Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9, Gurungs and Magars, was another factor contributing to the unification of Nepal. At first, Prithvi Narayan used to appoint only the Magars and Khasas of Gorkha in his army. He ignored Gurungs, who inhabited Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Lamjung. Khas and Magars, not Gurungs, were appointed as commanders. Some Gurungs were, of course, recruited as soldiers, but none of them attained the status of Sardar. It was only after the annexation Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 of Lanjung during the reign of Queen Rajendra Laxmi that Gurungs began to be recruited in large numbers in the army. The military organization that comprises these three communities later Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 proved to be highly powerful.

Prithvi Narayan Shah enlisted Gurungs for his eastern campaing. Bhinse Gurung had proved himself a capable officer in defeating the troops commanded by Kinloch when they advanced to Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Sindhuli. Narsing Gurung was one of the four ministers appointed during the reign of King Rana Bahadur Shah. All



this was the contribution of the Khasa language. Brahmans, Thakuris, Thapas, and Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Basnyats began to speak in this language.

Bhahmans were divided into two sub-groups, Upadhyaya and Jaisi, Thakuris considered Kshatriyas. Thapas and Basnyats did no recognize Thakuris as Kshatriyas, since the latter had never Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 been ruler, one section of Thakuris not wearing the sacred thread were called Matwali, because they took liquor. Vaishyas did no form part of the Khas community. Matwali Khas Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 were regarded by Brahmans, Thakuris, and Kshatriyas as pure Khawas. Matwali Khawas regarded themselves as Kshatriyas. There was, indeed, no community or caste which did not regard itself as pure. Even Magars considered themselves to Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 be Vaishyas. Brahmans, however, regarded them as Shudras, even though Magars regarded them as spiritual leaders or priests.

Gurungs were not divided into different castes, because they were Buddhists. The Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 same was the case with Hayus, Limbus, Khambus and Thamis belonging to the Kirat community.

Brahmans were responsible for imparting education, but they did not want to teach in the Khas language, which was Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 the national language. Instead, they used Sanskrit books to teach Brahman boys alone, while others were мейд to recite verses from Chandi and other texts. They recited epics such as Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 the Mahabharat and the Ramayan in the national language. Teachers used to be emplyed in the royal palace. No provisison was мейд for imparting education to the public. However, all but Brahmans had realized Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 the importance of providing education through the mediun of the national language. The wife of Kaji Vamsha Raj Pande had emplyed a Pandit to teach her sons, and had the Panchatantra translated Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 into national language. Brahmans were granted Birta lands with obligations to impart education to the public. Accordingly, they tought pupils who came to their housed for education.

From the time Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 of Prithvi Narayan Shah to the war with the British, Nepal was preoccupied with the campaign of territorial expansion. As a result, not much progress was ahieved in the field of Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 education. Even then, there were many Sanskrit scholars during the reign of Prithvi Narayan Shah. Previously, there was no well-Known Sanskrit scholar in Gorkha. While Kaski



had several famous scholars. Most Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 of them shifted to Kathmandu after conquest of Kaski, and started working for the dissemination of the national language. Proetry appears to have begun to be composed in the national language only during the Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 reign of King Pratap Simha. Poems were written during the reign of King Prithvi Narayan Shah also, but these mostly bore the imprint of Hindustani, and could not, therefore, be said Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 to have been written in the national language. During the reign of Pratap Simha, two brothers named Radha Ballabh Aryal and Shakti Ballabh Aryal, who came to priestly family, begaun writing poems in the Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 national language. There are only a few poems written by Radha Ballabh Arya, while the number of those composed by Shakti Ballabh Aryal is large. Shakti Ballabh had also written Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 a Nepali drama entitled Hasyakautuka.

Education in Sankrit was imparted in Nepal to some extent. But this was done more out of selfish considerations then of any considerations of national language. For Nepal Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9, Sanskrit education is essential. Hindu culture cannot survive in the absence of Sanskrit education. No nation that does not have a culture of it own can become strong. At that Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 time, it was difficult to popularize English education, which is now considered necessary for including national language consciousness among the people. Arrangements could have been мейд then to arouse national consciousness byu Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 imparting instruction in the national language. But Sanskrit scholars did no care to do so. the Joshis who conducted official correspondence in the national language since the time of Prithvi Narayan Shah Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 expressed their ideas effectively in the national language. They coulf have written books in the national language to spread national consiousness had they so wanted. But, in an age in which Sankrit Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 occupied a dominating position, writing in the national language was considered to be disgraceful. They confined themselves to relelling stories concerning religion, society, and politics from such Sanskrit epics as the Mahabharat and Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 the Ramayana in order to enlighten their audience. They were afraid that they mught be deprived of their means of livelihood if they wrote books on religion, society and politics in the national Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 language. As a result, education could not be imparted in the national language during that period. However, one drama was written in the national language, and one or two Sanskrit dramas Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 and books on mathematics were translated. A few ordinary peots also wrote poems in the Nepali language. However, their poems were in the nature of a sample only, and were not useful Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 for teaching purposes. The importance



of English education was realized by the Nepalis only after the war with the British. The British tried to obstruct the spread of free education in Nepal, and distored Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 the very history of Nepal. This is why, since the time of Prithvi Narayan Shah, Nepal has been facing numerous obstables in the way of developing education.

Religion was an important Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 aspect of the Nepali society. Nepalis had full faith in the Sanatan religion. Prithvi Narayan Shah was a devout adherent of this religion. At the same time, he respected other religions, and Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 had faith in Buddhism also. The policy of religious tolerance had been followed in Nepal since the time of the Malla Kings. This policy was continued during the reign of Prithvi Narayan Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Shah and his successors. They opposed religious reforms, which they regarded as a sin. They desired the continuance of the traditional religious customs, and faithfully followed the scripturs and Tantric rites. Brahmans Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9, Thakuris, and Khasas, also did not same. They recited religious scriptures in Sanskrit, though they did not understand them. They recited the Chandi. Magars, who had been educated nearly to the same level Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 as /_Sanskrit, as they had been converted to Buddhism by the Lamas of Tibet. Gurungs, Sherpas, Murmis, and Thakalis lagged behind in learning Nepali, because they adhered to Buddhism.

Slavery was Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 prectised for a long time. Prithvi Narayan Shah initiated steps to abolish this evil. An anti-slavery campaign was sweaping at that time in Europe also. Such a campaign had been Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 started in Europe because the establishment of new factories there had rendered slavery unnecessary. They situation was quite the opposite in Nepal. Not a single piece of machinery operated in Nepal Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9, and there existed only dhikkis and grinding-stones. Even so, Prithvi Narayan Shah realized that it was barbarous practice to allow transactions in human beings. Before conquering Kathmandu, he had emancipated one Newar Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 of Lutikot from slavery. During the last years of his reign, Prithvi Narayan Shah liberated the slaves of the royal palace as well as of the nobles. He even recruited capable freed slaves Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 in the army, and appointed some of them as Subedars. Prithvi Narayan Shah wrote a letter to Sardar Ramakrishna Kunwar, asking him to have his young slaves recruited in the army. This letter Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 appears to have inspired other nobles also to free their slaves.

/_Kshetriyas, also recited the such taxes and followed Tantric rites. Gurungs had no knowledge of



During Prithvi Narayan Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Shah's reign, bribery and gambling were prohibited, and imcome frim judicial fines was not allowed to be utilized for meeting the expenses of the royal palace. During the reing of Rana Bahadur Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Shah, however, gambling was revived, brivery was encouraged, and judicial fines were eredited to the royal treasury. Prithvi Narayan Shah had tried to put an end to slavery. But it Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 was not as easy to abolish slavery as it to ban gambling, because such a measure was likely to lead to an unheavel in society. That was the reason why Prithvi Narayan Shah's Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 attention was directed toward preventing new enslavement. Rana Bahadur Shah, however, enslaved even the wives and children of persons involved in the incidents that took place at Golpuchhepar as year Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 before his accession to the throne. Thereafter the practice of enslaving people was continued on a large scale. During the administration of Bhimsen Thapa, there was hardly any Gorkhali soldier eputed to Kumaun and Garhwal Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 who did not return with one or two slaves. In particular, men and women (other than Brahmans), who were convicted of insect were enslaved. As a result, the number of slaves increased Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 rapidly. Slavery has now been abolished, and has become a story of the past.

Ram Shah, King of Gorkha, had entered a brief law for the State. This law did Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 not meet the requirements of the State ruled by Prithvi Narayan Shah, inasmuch s the new state was several times bigger than Gorkha. Prithvi Narayan himself. Hodgson, who was appointed as British envoy Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 to Nepal during the reign of King Rajendra, took away some files containing old Nepali laws to the India Office Library in London. The files were marked ''Laws Enforced during King Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Pratap Simha's reign.'' Pratap Simha reigned only three years. That period was marked by the resistence offered by the Kings of the Chaubisi states. It was, therefore, inpossible that those laws had been Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 drafted during such a short period. It is more likely that these laws were enacted during the reign of the Prithvi Narayan Shah, and enforced also during the reign of his successor Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9. These laws were not compiled in the form of a book, as is the common practice today. At that time laws written on sheets of paper joint together. Each Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 law was recorded separately. By the time of Bahadur Shah, the frontiers of the Kingdom of Nepal stretched from Sikkim to Kumaun. As the customs and



usages in different areas varied, and Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 as the law enforceing authorities held different views, it was not possible to apply these laws uniformly in the country. During the military administration that was run at the time of Bhimsen Thapa's regime Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9, the sanctiny of the law was undermined. It was probably that Jang Bahadur Shah had мейд extensive additions in the laws enforced during the rule of Pratap Simha. Later, Bir Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Shamsher abridged these laws. Anyway, thanks to the impact of the British rule in India, the sanctity to the law was respected during the Rana regime. Thus codified law originated during Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 the reign of King Prithvi Narayan Shah, and their sanctity won increasing acceptance during the Rana regime.

It was extremely diffufult to built roads in Nepal, because it was predominatly hilly country. It Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 was even move diffifult to constrct bridegs and culverts on rivers and streams. Prithvi Narayan Shah had мейд Kipat land grants to Tamangs, Khambus, and Limbus, who were not recruited in the army, in Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 order to impress porterage and labor services from them for constructed from Gorkha to its eastern frontier. After the death of Prithvi Narayan Shah, the Gorkhalis were able to conquer the Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Chaunbisi states situated to west of Gorkha district. In that area, however, roads were built through Jhara (forced labor), because no provision for kipat land grants could be мейд there. It Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 was through these roads that the Gorkhalis were able to advances as far as Kangra. By the end of the rule of Rajrajeshwari Devi, Damodar Pande had begun makng arrangements for Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 running a mail mail service. Not only documents but also goods were dispatched by mail. Such post offices, however, werer carriers operated exclusively for official purposes, however, were not paid salaries in cash, but they Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 were exempted from homestead taxes, some mail-carriers were also exempted from the obligation to provide unpaid labor services, and their duty was to transport mail only.

The economic policy followed by Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Prithvi Narayan Shah was remarkable. It was his desire that the country should be economically prosperous,and that every ordinary present, artisan, and trader should become affluent. He did not Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 like soldiers to become rich, however, for he believed that a soldier who is obsessed by wealth lacks the courage to underto any sacrifice for the country. However, soldiers were wellfed, and Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 their children were properly looked after.



There was much land, but too few men to cultivate it. Hence people had no reason to feel worried as to whether they would be able to Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 get enough land. Familities were мейд available to encourage settlers to reclaim lands. Before Prithvi Narayan Shah's rule, it was a customary practice to grant Dhunwa Birta lands to settlers Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9. A homestead from which smoke was emitted as registered as Dhunwa Birta (Dhunwa: smoke). In this manner, people were encouraged to resettle on Raikar lands in order to make the country Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 prosperous. This policy not only constributed to agricultural growth but also helped to promote arts and crafts.

Cloth had been manufactured since before Prithvi Narayan Shah. Cotton was cultivated and spun in the Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 country. In fact, the hondloom had reached an advanced stage during the reign of Prithvi Narayan Shah. Arts had crafts continued making progress till the reign of Rana Bahadur Shah Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9. Though political unheavals occurred occasionally, these did not have any impact on the society, which was making progress step by step.

Prithvi Narayan Shah was well-knon for his thrift. At the Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 same time, he was large hearted. Although poets have eulogized him as philanthropist, as temperament was such that he did not allow a single price to be spuandered. Evidence of his thrift is Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 furnished by his strictures. Against the revenue-farming system. Prithvi Narayan Shah also wanted accounts of government funds to be maintained accurately. He believed that if administrative and revenue-collection functions were discharged by Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 officers appointed by government, government servants would get word, the profits going to revenue-farmers would be saved, and work would be done properly. In addition, Prithvi Narayan Shah believed Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 that the government's revenue would increase if trade was developed. He never forget that trade is the source of affluence. This was the main reason why he chose Kathmandu as his capital. Tibet Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 used to import gold from the mines of Mongolia. Kathmandu was the center torugh which this gold passed on to Bihar and Bengal. For his reason, Prithvi Narayan Shah reluctantly мейд Kathmandu Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 his capital.

(To Be Continued).



^ A Licchavi Inscription at Lazimpat, KathmanduX


Dhanavajra Bajracharya


There is a mound-like historical site known as Dhobichaur in Lazimpat, Kathmandu. There inscriptions belonging to the time of King Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 Manadeva have been found there. One the these inscriptions is translated below. The inscription is contained on the font of a Shivalinga. It is dated 388 Samvat. The translation is based Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 on a copy of the inscription in the possession of the National Archives. This text is complete, unlike that given by R. Gnoli (No. 4).

Acting in a pure manner, he…. Conquered and ruled

though Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 bravery and statemenship. By the order (of

Manadeva), who was endowed with the good intellect, his

dutiful servant, Nara Varma, installed a suitable Shivalinga

along with a temple here, on Jestha Shukla

Chaturdashi, 388 Samvat with the object Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 of achiev-

ing gereral well-being.


Parts of this inscription have been disfigured, and are, therefore, illegible. Some of the missing portions can now be read in the photocopy of Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 the original inscription in the possession of the National Archives. This photocopy indicates that the inscription had started cracking up about thirty or forty years ago. If stepsl are not taken Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 for the safety of this inscription, its condition may further deteriorate in the future.


XDhanavajra Bajracharya, Licchavi Kalko Abhilekh (Inscription of the Licchavi Period). Kirtipur. Institute of Nepal and Asian Studies, Tribhuwan University, Ashadh 2030 (June Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 1973) PP. 31-33.



This inscription mentions the Samvat year 388. The portion containing the name of the King is broken. However, it is definite that the King referred to in this inscription Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 is none but Manadeva, for all inscriptions belonging to the period from 380 to 427 Samvat mention only his name.

It is not considered appropriate for a good King to dominate others through Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 brute force. Nor does it behove a King to resort only displomatic tactice. Hence, according to Kalidas, a King should follow a policy of balance between force and statesmanship. The first line in this Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 inscription indicates that Manadeva followed such a policy.

This inscription had been installed by Nara Varma after installing a Shivalinga on the orders of King Manadeva. In this inscription, Nara Varma describes himself Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 as a servant of Manadeva. This indicates that he was an officer dependent on the favors of King Manadeva.

Although the Shivalinga installed by Nara Varma is still intact, not Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 even the ruins of the temple built by him can be seen new. Ancient temples, palaces and houses in Kathmandu Valley have not sevived because of frequent and major earthquakes.

Shaivism Regmi Research (Private) Ltd - 9 occupies an important place among the religious sects which have been followed continuously in Nepal since ancint times. This explains why